Author: Puran Chand Nahar
Publisher: Sundeep Prakashan
ISBN/UPC (if available): 8185066183
Brahmanic and Sramanic, these two religious traditions, fairly epitomized the religious ethos of the ancient Indian people. The former, in some form or the other, banks upon the idea of God; whereas, in the Sramanic religious tradition, God is replaced by man himself, and for achieving nirvana, one has to rely solely upon one's own efforts. Jainism, very much like Buddhism, subscribes to the Sramanic view of man's predictament and shows the way out of it.
Vardhaman Mahavira (6th century BC), the last and twenty-fourth tirthankara in the Jaina religious tradition, through his own efforts, without any aid from divine or human agencies, discovered Kevala Jnana or perfect knowledge and shared it with his contemporaries, now preserved in the Jaina Agamas or scriptures, in Prakrit language. The present book is an engrossing study of the precepts and practices that characterize Jainism.
FREE WILL AND FATALISM
The Problem Discussed; Is Jiva a Free Centre of Origination?-Belief in the Latter Makes Moral Judgment Inexplicable-Ethics Lose Its Injunctive Character-Leaves No Room for Merit, Reward and Virtue-Examination of the Demerits-Arguments in the Light of European Ethics.
WILL AND INDIVIDUALITY
Karma-Sarira and the Nature of Its Migration-Water-Globule and Karma-Globule-The Vegetable Seeds and Karma-Sarira in Relation to Nature-Selection and Its Character-Human Evolution is Essentially Teleological-Humanity Always Keeps a Goel Before Itself.
CASUALITY IN THE MORAL WORLD
What Does Responsibility Imply?-Reward or Punishment Unavoidable-Law of Karma-Casuality Inviolable-Prayer or Worship Has No Efficacy-No Need of Extra Mundane Moral Providence-Law of Karma is a More Rational Explanation-An Act of Vice is Not Equal to Incurring a Debt-The Theory Karma-Pudgal-The Distinction Between Right and Wrong is Not An Absolute Distinction.
CLASSIFICATION OF KARMAS
Karma Definition-Nature and Character of Karma-Karma or Action-Currents-Two Main Divisions of Action-Currents-Currents of Injury and of Non-Injury-Dr. Bose and the Action-Currents-Sub-Divisions of Action-Currents of Injury to Vision, Knowledge, Mohaniya and Antaraya-Detrimental to Psychical Unfoldment-Currents of Non-Injury-Aus, Nam. Gotra and Vedaniya-Determinative of the Organic Formations.
FROM METAPHYSICS TO ETHICS
How Does the Theory Determine The Practice?-The Jain Ethical Speculation-How it is Determined and Based on Their Metaphysical Conclusion-A Contrast Between Buddhistic and Jain Morality-The Jain Conception of the Summum Bonum.
THE CONCEPTIONS OF VIRTUE AND VICE
Virtue and Vice-Distinctive Principle Between Them-Human Conduct is Essentially Teleological-Moksha is the Highest End of Life and Activity-Contrast Between the Eastern and Western Conceptions of Vice and Virtue, Vice and Karma Casuality-The Problem of Evil.
ON PUNYA AND ITS FRUITIONS
Punya and Papa in Relation to haritra-Analysis of Charitra or Conduct-Considerations of Moral Activity-Good and the Law of Duty-Fundamental Factors of Punya-Knowledge,Faith and Will-Punyas as Forms of Service-Sincerity is the Soul of Religiousity-Sincerity and Punya-Psychical and Physical Fruitions for the Performances of Punya.
PAPA, VICE OR SIN.
Constituent Elements of Papa-Ananda is the Prime Good-Philosophy of Passion-The Doctrine of Indolentia-Eighteen Kinds of Papa-Their Consequences.
ASRAVA OR INFLUX
Influx-Influx and Bandha-Their Mutual Relation of Receprocity-Causes of the Influx-Mithyatva, Avirate, Pramada and Yoga-Influx, Subjective and Objective-Forty Two Channels of Influx of the Karma-Matter into the Soul.
BANDHA OR BONDAGE
Bandha-Its Classification-Possibilities of Bandha-Refutation of the Theory of Parallelism and Dualism-Bandha is Without Beginning-Causes of Bandha-Mithyatva or Subreption-Definition or Subreption-Forms and Kinds of Subreption-Possibilities of Subreption-Psychology and Philosophy of Subreption.
SAMVARA OR STOPPAGE
Samvara Classified Into Physical and Psychical-With Samvara Begins the Practical Morality-Swaraj, The Ultimate End-Fifty Seven Kinds of Samvara-Five Samitis. Three Guptis, Ten Rules of Asceticism-Twelve Bhavanas, Twenty Six Parishahas and Five Charitras.
NIRJARA OR DISSIPATION
Nirjara-Its Definition-Classification of Nirjara Into Sakama and Akama-The Mumukshin Strives for Sakama Nirjara to Expediate Liberation-Phases and Transformations of Karma-Means and Methods of Sakama Nirjara-The Primary Condition of Nirjara is Austerity-Austerity Burns Up the Karma Seeds and Sets the Jiva Free-Forms of Austerities and Dhyanas Which Burn Up the Seeds of Karma Before Their Due Times.
MOKSHA OR EMANCIPATION
Moksha or Emancipation-Moksha is the Highest Good-Conceptions of the Highest good According to the Different Schools of Philosophy-Moksha is Eternal and Constitutional with the Soul-It Cannot be Worked Out By Kaaom-For Moksha is Not the Product of Anything.
The Gunasthanas or the Stepping-Stones to Higher Things-The Fourteen Stages Squeezed Up Into Four Only-The First is the Life of Conscious Selection-The Third is That of Conscience and Faith-And the Fourth is That of Knowledge and Delight Infinite-Fourteen Stages Leading to Omniscience-Regulation or Control Does not Mean Stultification as Complained of.
The Cycles of Avasarpini and Utsarpini-The Yugalikas and the Kalpa Trees-We Get Glimpses of the Lives of the First Twenty Two Thirthankaras-Regular Historical Accounts Begins With Parshwanath, The Twenty Third Tirthankar and Mahavir, the Twenty Fourth-Rapture and Split-the Principal Subdivisions of the Swetambaris and Digambaris-The List of Gachhas
On the Festivals, Pujjusan is the Greatest Chaturmasya-The Dewali-Jnana Panchami-Merh Terash-Mouna Ekadashi-Pous Dasami-Chaitra Purnima-Akshaya Tritiya-Ashara Sukla Chaturdashi.
JAIN PLACES OF PILGRIMAGE
Kalyanak Bhumis or Places of Pilgrimages-Shatrnjaya Hills-Pawapuri-Pareshnath Hills-Mount Abu-Girnar Hills-Rajgir-Beneras-Ajodhya-Champapur &c.
Jain Literature Forms One of the Oldest Literary Records in the World-The Purvas-The Angas-The Purvas Have Been Lost-We Find Mention of Their Names Only-Siddhantas and Their Origin-The Jain Scholiasts, Commentators and Authors.
JAIN ART AND ARCHITECTURE
Jain Symbolism Arts and Architecture-Stages of Development Along Its Own Lines-Difference Between the Jain and Buddhist Arts-Jain Paintings-Its Place in the Ancient Art Gallery of India and Its Influence Over the Community.
A. DATE OF KING CHANDRA GUPTA
B. FIRMANS & SUNNUDA
(a) Akbar's Firman, 1592 A D
(b) Jehangir's Do 1608 A D
© Shahajahan's Do, 1629 A D
(d) Mahamadshah's Do 1657 A D
(e) Prince Muras's Sunnud 1657 A D
(f) Confirmation of Do, 1658 A D
(g) Aurangzib's Do, 1658 A D
(h) Ahmedshah's Firman, 1752 A D
(i) Abu Alikhan's Sunnud, 1755 A D
(j) Jagatseth's Parwana, 1775 A D
C. List of Agams & Nigams
(a) Jain Agams
(b) Jain Nigams
D. Tirthankaras of the Present Era
E. List of the Gachha-Heads