Author: Bhava Misra
Translator(s): R K Srikantha
Publisher: Krishnadas Academy
ISBN/UPC (if available): 812180034X (Set)
Bhavaprakasa is an authoritative text on Ayurveda and is being studied by students, teachers and Practitioners of Ayurveda since last five centuries. It is comprehensive, dealing with basic doctrine, etiology, symptomatology and treatment of all diseases.
It describes about 500 drugs belonging to vegetable, mineral and animal kingdoms. This lexicon of drugs (Nighantu Bhaga) is considered as a speciality of this text since it incorporates many new drugs unknown in the ancient period. In the treatment of diseases both Kasthausadhas (Vegetable drugs) and Rasausadhas (mercurial and mineral drugs) have been prescribed. With all these merits Bhavaprakasa has been a very popular text. Need for its English translation was being keenly felt specially by Post-graduate students. This translation is a step in that direction.
The translator Prof. Srikantha Murthy is a person rich in experience of teaching Ayurveda and writing valuable books. His earlier translations into English of Sarangadhara Samhita, Madhava Nidana, Astanga Hrdaya and Astanga Samgraha have earned for him an international reputation. This book is the next in that series.
Bhavaprakasa-complete treatise-is being published in two volumes.
Vol. I: Prathama Khanda including Nighantu Bhaga.
Vol. II: Madhya and Uttara Khanda
Each volume has many appendices and index-prepared so as to very useful for all Ayurvedists.
This second and final volume of translation of Bhavaprakasa, comprises of Madhya and Uttara Khanda, (middle and last sections) of the text.
Madhyakhanda has 71 chapters divided into four parts and deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the first six branches of Ayurveda. Uttara khanda has only two chapters, one each for Vrsa (vajikarana) and Jara (rasayana) Total number of chapters of the entire text is thus- 80.
The order of arrangement of chapters in Madhya khanda is similar to that found in Madhava nidana. Separate chapters for some new diseases have also been added, which are as follows-
2.Amlapitta including , slesma pitta.
Description of diseases includes etiology, symptomatology, prognosis and treatment in detail. In treatment, both Kasthausadhas (herbal formulae) and Rasausadhas (mercurial and metallic (herbomineral formulae), have been mentioned. Procedure of preparing some of these have also been described. For majority of Rasausadhas, Bhavamisra has even mentioned the source (text) from which these have been borrowed. In addition to medicinal formulae culled from earlier classical texts, Bhavamisra has given good number of anubhuta yogas (formulae found effective by experience) which includes Ekausadha Prayoga (single drug treatment). With these merits Bhavaprakasa is a very valuable book for practioners of Ayurveda medicine.
Similar to the first volume, this also is a faithful translation for the meaning of technical terms and identification of some drugs. I have solely depended on the commentary of Bhavamisra, since he differs here and there from the views of earlier authorities especially in interpreting names of drugs on these points. So this translation provides a glimpse of the commentary also. I have added my own where necessary to explain the subject matter. Readers may refer Vol. 1 of my translation for Botanical names of drugs. Necessary appendences have also been furnished for ready reference.
Bhava Prakasa is an important treatise on Ayurveda, being counted as one of the Laghu Trayi (little three classical texts). It continues to be studied by students and practitioners alike, since a long time.
In the invocatory verse the author gives his name as Bhava misra and in the colophon of each chapter, mentions his father’s name as Latakana misra. Apart from these two names he has not furnished any information about his date, province he belonged to, place of residence, professional and literary activities etc. in this book. Three more books written by him are known but are not available in print. Whether these contain any of his whereabouts is also not known. So what we now know about him definitely is very little.
From a critical study of the present text and other relevant literature, modern scholars have arrived at the following most likely assumptions.
1.Bhavamisra was an orthodox Brahmin-his surname misra being used especially by brahmins only, his reverential mentioning of the names of many Hindu gods such as Brahma, Vishnu (Sripati, Machusudana Hari), Mahesvara (Hara, Siva) Ganes Surya, Agni (pavaka) Hanumanta, Angaraka, Ganga, Bhudevatas (brahmanas) etc.
2.He belonged to Magadha (south Bihar) since he gives the names of many kinds of menu (cooked foods) known only in Magadha (lower and middle parts of Bihar)
3.His place of residence was Gaya according to Priyavrat sharma. Kanyakubja according to Gananath sen and Banaras, according to Julius jolly and others. Further research only can confirm the correct place,
4.He was an independent medical practitioner since he does not make mention of any king or chieftain-either Hindu or Muslim as his patron or benefactor.
CONTENTS IN BRIEF
PURVA KHANDA (First section) has seven chapters and deals with origin of Ayurveda-chief gods and sages propogating it-Lokasrsti-pancabhuta triguna-Atma; Indriya-manas; Garbhotpatti-Sarira anga-avayava-Dosadi vijnana-Dinacarya-rtucarya-sadacara-rogakarana-cikitsapada Sadrasa gunakarma-Ausadha dravyas-sangrahana-pratinidhi-ausadha ahara dravya verga (groups of drugs and articles of diet-Nighantubhaga).
Description of different groups of drugs and articles of diet is dealt in 24 (twenty four) vargas (groups) which from part of chapter 6 is considered the speciality of Bhavaprakasa. The author furnishes names, synonyms, names in different regions, properties and actions, tests, etc. of drugs of all categories (vegetable, animal and mineral origin). Apart from the drugs which are in use since long, many new ones which have come to India through western countries and those used in Unani system of medicine have also been incorporated in this text. Hence Bhavamisra is given the credit for enlarging the material medica of Ayurveda with addition of new drugs. This portion of the text is known popularly as Bhavaprakasa nighantu and has been published separately with detailed notes by many present day scholars.
MADHYA KHANDA-Middle / Second section has 71 chapters dealing with the nidana (aetiology), laksana (symptomatology), samprapti (pathogenesis) sadhyasadhyata (prognosis) and cikitsa (treatment) of all diseases, with greater emphasis on Kaya cikitsa (inner medicine). Both Kasthausadha (formulae from vegetable drugs) and Rasuasadha (formulae from mercury and minerals) are mentioned in the treatment.
UTTARA KHANDA- Third and last section has only two chapters, one dealing with Vajikarana cikitsa (virilification therapy) and the other with Rasayana cikitsa (rejuvinatory therapy).
COMMENTARIES-Till now only two commentaries in Sanskrit on Bhavaprakasa are known-
1. First one-which has no specific name is available in full and printed along with the text.
2. Second commentary by name Sadvaidya siddhanta ratnakara is written by Jayadeva, son of Jayakrisna on the orders of Maharaja Ranavira Simha, king of Kashmir. This is incomplete and its manuscript is in the library of Jammu.
ADDITIONS AND TRANSLATIONS
The first edition of Bhavaprakasa-full text together with its commentary was edited and published by Sri Jivananda vidyasagar Bhattacharya, Calcutta in 1875. This was the authentic copy of the manuscript and so considered as authoritative. Since then it has been published many times, edited by different scholars; some editors have published the nighantu portion of the text only under the name Bhavaprakasa Nighantu.
Bhavaprakasa has been translated into Hindi and some other Indian languages, but not to any foreign language so far. This translation into English is the first in this category.
Names of Chapters
NAMES OF CHAPTERS
1.Jvara adhikara - Fever-diagnosis & treatment
2.Atisara adhikara - Diarrhoea- diagnosis & treatment
3.Jvaratisara adhikara - Fever with diarrhoea - diagnosis & treatment
4.Grahaniroga adhikara - Duodenal disorders - diagnosis & treatment
5.Arso adhikara-Haemorrhoids / piles - diagnosis & treatment
6.Jatharagni vikara adhikara-Digestive Disorders- diagnosis & treatment
7.Krimiroga adhikara -Parasitic disorders- diagnosis & treatment
8.Panduroga-kamala, Halimara adhikara- Anaemia-jaundice etc.- diagnosis & treatment
9.Rakta pitta adhikara - Bleeding diseases- diagnosis & treatment
10.Amlapitta-slesmapitta adhikara- Hyperacidity- diagnosis & treatment
11.Rajayaksma adhikara -Pulmonary tuberculosis- diagnosis & treatment
12.Kasa roga adhikara-Cough- diagnosis & treatment
13.Hikka roga adhikara-Hiccup- diagnosis & treatment
14.Svasa roga adhikara-Dyspnoea- diagnosis & treatment
15.Svarabheda adhikara -Hoarseness- diagnosis & treatment
16.Arocaka adhikara -norexia- diagnosis & treatment
17.Chardi adhikara-Vomitting- diagnosis & treatment
18.Trsna adhikara-Thirst- diagnosis & treatment
19.Murcha, bhrama, nidra, tandra, sannyasa, adhikara-Fainting, giddiness, coma- diagnosis & treatment
20.Madatyaya adhikara -Alcoholic intoxication- diagnosis & treatment
21.Daha adhikar-Burning sensation- diagnosis & treatment
22.Unmada adhikara -Insanity- diagnosis & treatment
23.Apasmara adhikara-Epilepsy- diagnosis & treatment
24.Vata vyadhi adhikara-Diseases of nervous system- diagnosis & treatment
25.Urusthambha adhikara -Monoplegia- diagnosis & treatment
26.Amavata adhikara -Rheumatism- diagnosis & treatment
27.Pitta vyadhi adhikara-Diseases of pitta origin
28.Slesma vyadhi adhikara -Diseases of kapha origin
29.Vatarakta adhikara-Gout- diagnosis & treatment
30.Sula adhikara- Abdominal pain- diagnosis & treatment
31.Udavarta-anaha adhikara- Flatulence- diagnosis & treatment
32.Gulma adhikara-Abdominal tumor- diagnosis & treatment
33.Pliha yakrt adhikara-Diseases of spleen & liver- diagnosis & treatment
34.Hrdroga adhikara-Diseases of the heart- diagnosis & treatment
35.Mutrakrcchra adhikara-Dysuria- diagnosis & treatment
36.Mutraghata adhikara-Retention of urine- diagnosis & treatment
37.Asmari adhikara-Urinary calculus- diagnosis & treatment
38.Prameha adhikara-Diabetes- diagnosis & treatment
39.Sthaulya adhikara-Obesity- diagnosis & treatment
40.Karsya adhikara -Emaciation- diagnosis & treatment
41.Udara adhikara- Enlargemnt of the abdomen- diagnosis & treatment
42.Sotha adhikara-Dropsy- diagnosis & treatment
43.Vrddhi-bradhna adhikara -Scrotal enlargement (hernia)- diagnosis & treatment
44.Galaganda-gandamala, Granthi-arbuda adhikara-Cenvical lymphadenitis, scrofula, benign and maliganant tumors- diagnosis & treatment
45.Slipada adhikara -Filariasis- diagnosis & treatment
46.Vidradhi adhikara-Abcesses- diagnosis & treatment
47.Vranasotha adhikara-Inflammatory oedema- diagnosis & treatment
48.Bhagna adhikara-Fractures- diagnosis & treatment
49.Nadi vrana adhikara -Sinus ulcer- diagnosis & treatment
50.Bhagandara adhikara -Anal fistula- diagnosis & treatment
51.Upadamsa adhikara-Syphilis & other S T D - diagnosis & treatment
52.Lingarsas adhikara-Warts of the penis- diagnosis & treatment
53.Sukadosa adhikara-Diseases of the penis- diagnosis & treatment
54.Kustha adhikara-Leprosy- diagnosis & treatment
55.Sitapitta-udarda, kotha-adhikara-Allergic skin rashes- diagnosis & treatment
56.Visarpa adhikara-Erysepelas- diagnosis & treatment
57.Snayuka roga adhikara-Dracontiasis- diagnosis & treatment
58.Visphota adhikara-Small-pox- diagnosis & treatment
59.Phiranga roga adhikara-Syphilis- diagnosis & treatment
60.Maurika sitala, roga-adhikara-Chicken-pox- diagnosis & treatment
61.Ksudra roga adhikara-Minor diseases- diagnosis & treatment
62.Siro roga adhikara-Diseases of the head- diagnosis & treatment
63.Netra roga adhikara-Diseases of the eyes- diagnosis & treatment
64.Karna roga adhikara-Diseases of the ears- diagnosis & treatment
65.Nasa roga adhikar-Diseases of the nose- diagnosis & treatment
66.Mukha roga adhikara-Diseases of the mouth- diagnosis & treatment
67.Visa roga adhikara-Diseases of poisons- diagnosis & treatment
68.Stri roga adhikara-Diseases of women- diagnosis & treatment
69.Soma roga adhikara-Leucorrhoea- diagnosis & treatment
70.Yoni roga adhikara-Diseases of Vagina uterus- diagnosis & treatment
71.Bala roga adhikara-Diseases of children- diagnosis & treatment
1. Vajikarana adhikara-Virilification therapy
2. Rasayana adhikara-Rejuvination therapy
1.Names of authorities mentioned by Bhavamisra
3.List of diseases
Chapters of the text
PURVA KHANDA (FIRST SECTION) PRATHAMA BHAGA-PART-I
1. Ayurveda Pravaktru
2. Srsti prakarana
3. Garbha Prakarana
4. Bala Prakarana
5. Dinacaryadi Prakarana
6. Misra Prakarana
Dhatupadhatu-rasoparasa-ratnopartna, visopavisa varga
Anekartha nama varga
DVITIYA BHAGA -PART-II
Mana paribhasa prakarasa
Bhesaja vidhana prakarana
Dhatvadi sodhana marana prakarana
Snehapana vidhi prakrana
Pancakarma vidhi prakarana
Dhumapanadi vidhi prakarana
Rogi pariksa prakarana
List of drugs of vegetable origin (basonyms)
Synonyms of plants and plant products
Botonical and English names
Pratinidhi dravyas (substitute drugs)
List of animals and animal products
List of metals, minerals, salts etc.
Names of drugs in Hindi
Table of ancient weights and measures