Banda Singh Bahadur and Sikh Sovereignty

Banda Singh Bahadur and Sikh Sovereignty

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Author: Harbans Kaur Sagoo
Publisher: Deep & Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Year: 2001
Language: English
Pages: 274
ISBN/UPC (if available): 8176293008

Description

In this book, the author has made an attempt to study Banda Singh Bahadur's multi-dimensional role in an objective manner and setting at rest to the maximum possible extent the misgivings about him and his career.

The author has emphasized that Banda Singh Bahadur had the acumen to plan and the ability to execute. She has also examined his historic role of raising the huge armed struggle for the establishment of mighty Sikh state in Punjab.

The early eighteenth century Punjab History witnessed a stiff resistance from the local chiefs (both religious and political), the 'Zamindars' and the peasants to local Mughal officials in their attempt to maintain imperial control. They struggled for greater share in the revenues and in political power over the region, ultimately aiming to establish sovereignty in the different parts of the subahs of Punjab and Delhi.

The most significant feature of the Sikh history during the course of 17th and the 18th centuries is that the 'Sikh' Community/Nanak Panth which transformed the Sikhs, not only into a political force but a force to reckon with.

In this monograph an attempt has been made to give a critical assessment of life and achievements of Banda Singh Bahadur as well as an account of his struggle, as a leader of the Sikhs, against the Mughals. Within a period of eight years after the death of Guru Gobind Singh in 1708, Banda Singh Bahadur was able to rouse the peasantry in the Majiha and Malwa areas to take up arms and successfully shook the very foundations of the Mughal Empire. Due to his generosity and spiritual appeal, he had no dearth of recruits. By 1710, Banda Bahadur had virtually become master of the territory worth about 36 lakhs of rupees per annum. He made his own 'faujdars, diwans and kardars'. He adopted Mukhlispur, an imperial fort now given the name of Lohgarh, as his headquarter. To celebrate his successful capture of Sirhind in 1710, he not only introduced a new calendar from that date, he even struck coins in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh. Even though Banda Singh Bahadur's political career was short lived, as he was executed in June 1716 (near the tomb of Sheikh Qutbuddin Bhaktyar Kaki close to the Qutab Minar), his armed struggle had spread over the Malwa and the 'Majiha' territories. The Mughal emperor ordered a general mobilization of all his forces in Delhi, Awadh and other neighboring areas and called for "a Jihad against the Sikhs." However, this goes without saying that Banda's struggle was political and agrarian in character which had exposed the feebleness of the Mughal administration and the discontentment of the peasants.

The author has emphasized that Banda Singh Bahadur had the acumen to plan and the ability to execute. She has also examined his historic role of raising the huge armed struggle for the establishment of a mighty Sikh state in Punjab.

Contents

Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgements

CHAPTER 1
SIKH GURUS AND MUGHAL EMPERORS
Relations under Guru Nanak (1469 A.D. - 1539 A.D.)
Guru Angad Dev (1539 A.D. - 1552 A.D.)
Guru Amar Das (1552 A.D. - 1574 A.D.)
Guru Ram Das (1574 A.D. - 1581 A.D.)
Guru Arjan Dev (1581 A.D. - 1606 A.D.)
Prince Khusrau Meets Guru Arjan
Jahangir's hatred for the Guru
Guru Hargobing (1606 A.D. - 1645 A.D.)
Succession of Shah Jahan
Battle of Amritsar (1628 A.D.)
Battle of Hargobindpur (1630 A.D.)
The Battle of Lahra and Gurusar (December 1634 A.D.)
The Battle of Kartarpur (April 26, 1635 A.D.)
The Battle of Phagwara (April 29, 1635 A.D.)
Guru Har Rai (1645 A.D. - 1661 A.D.)
Guru Har Krishan (1661 A.D. - 1664 A.D.)
Guru Tegh Bahadur (1664 A.D. - 1675 A.D.)
Guru Gobind Singh and Aurangzeb (1675 A.D. - 1707 A.D.)
First Period (1675 A.D. - 1699 A.D.)
Conflict with Kahlur
First Battle of Anandpur (1682 A.D.)
Second Battle of Anandpur (1685 A.D)
The Battle of Bhangani (April 16, 1689 A.D.)
The Battle of Nadaun (1690 A.D.)
Rustam Khan's Expedition against the Guru (1691 A.D.)
The Expedition of Hussain Khan (1693 A.D.)
Battle between 1694-96 A.D.
Expedition of Jujhar Singh (1697 A.D.)
Prince Muazzam's March into the Hills(1698 A.D.)
Battle with Alam Chand and Balia Chand
Fortification of Anandpur
The Post-Khalsa Period (1699 A.D.-1708)
First Battle of Anandpur (1699 A.D.)
Battle of Nirmoh (1700 A.D.)
Battle of Basali (1700 A.D.)
The First Battle of Chamkaur (1702 A.D.)
The Third Battle of Anandpur (1703 A.D.)
The Fourth Battle of Kiratpur (1704 A.D.)
The Fifth and the Last Battle of Anandpur (1704 A.D.)
The Battle of Bachhora Sahib on the River Sarsa (December 21, 1704 A.D.)
The Second Battle of Chamkaur (December 22, 1704 A.D.)
Fateh Nama
Two Younger Sons of the Guru Executed (December 27, 1704 A.D.)
The Zafar Nama
The Battle of Khidrana (May 8, 1705 A.D.)
Bahadur Shah and Guru Gobind Singh (February 20, 1707 A.D. - October 7, 1708 A.D.)

2. Early Years of Banda Singh Bahadur

3. Establishment of Sikh State

4. Rising of the Sikhs
Yamuna-Ganga Doab Region
Rising in Majha
Rising in Jullundur Doab

5. Bahadur Shah and the Sikhs

6. The struggle against Jahandar Shah

7. Last Encounter

8. Epilogue

Bibliography
Index