Author: Franklin Edgerton
Editor(s): Bernard Bloch/ Isidore Dyen/ Albrecht Goetze et al
Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass
ISBN/UPC (if available): 8120809971
This is the first attempt at a description of the grammar and the lexicon of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (BHS). Most North Indian Buddhist texts are composed in it. It is based primarily on an old Middle Indic vernacular not otherwise identifiable. But there seems reason to believe that it contains features which were borrowed (originally, or in the course of historical development, or both) from other Middle Indic dialects. In other words, even its Middle Indic aspects are dialectically somewhat mixed. Most strikingly, however, BHS was also extensively influenced by Sanskrit from the very beginning of the tradition as it has been transmitted to us, and increasingly as time went on. Many (especially later) products of this tradition have often, though misleadingly, been called simply Sanskrit, without qualification.
The most striking peculiarity of this language is that from the very beginning of its tradition it was modified in the direction of standard Sanskrit, while still retaining evidences of its Middle Indic origin, in all its texts, even the oldest, as shown by our manuscripts and editions. Sanskritisms are constantly presented check by jowl with Middle Indic forms, and often with hybrids which strictly are neither one or other. These Sanskritisms are much too common to be comparable with stray Sanskrit loan words or loan forms which may have been occasionally adopted in many genuine Middle Indic vernacular.
In principle, the author has excluded from the grammar and dictionary all forms which are standard Sanskrit, and all words which are used in standard Sanskrit with the same meanings.
VOL. I: GRAMMAR
LIST OF CHAPTERS
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS.
2. Phonology, consonants.
3. Phonology, vowels.
10. i-stems with i- and in-terms.
11. Feminines in -a and -i.
12. u and u-stems.
13. p- stems.
14. Diphthongal stems.
15. Consonant stems.
20. Personal pronouns.
21. Generic pronouns.
22. Noun suffixes.
23. Noun and verb compounds.
24. The verb: general remarks.
25. Person and number.
26. Personal endings.
27. Non-Sanskritic treatment of thematic vowel.
28. Summary classification of non-Sanskritic presents.
32. Aorist, or preterite (including imperfect).
34. Participles, including gerundives.
38. Stems in aya (e); causative, denominative, etc.
41. Syntactic addenda to the verb.
42. Constructions with ma.
43. Synopsis of verb forms.
VOL. II: DICTIONARY
Partial index of Middle Indic words
3. Other Prakrit, Apabhramsa, and Desi words.