History of Jainism

History of Jainism

Product ID: 17772

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Author: V K Sharma
Publisher: D K Printworld
Year: 2002
Language: English
Pages: 300
ISBN/UPC (if available): 812460195X


As one of the world’s major religions, founded on the spiritual principles of ahimsa (non-violence), truth, and righteous conduct, Jainism has today 2,600 years of a splendid living tradition — with a well-defined worldview, metaphysics and code of ethics. A leading scholar, V K Sharma here presents an altogether fresh, pan-Indian historical survey of this great religion, spelling out its beginnings, antiquity, doctrines, tirthamkaras, country-wide spread and, among other aspects, its contribution to India’s culture and art heritage — in all its varied manifestations.

In the latter part of the book, the author comes to focus upon Jainism in the specific contexts of Mathura — one of India’s ancient cities, which not only is venerated as the legendary birthplace of Lord Krishna, but is also famed as an eminent centre of Brahmanical, Buddhist and Jaina art. Thus shows Dr Sharma how this principal Vaishnava centre today had been a stronghold of Jainism: from c second century bc to about eleventh century ad; how it has contributed to Jaina canon, literature and iconography; and how in Mathura is traceable the centuries-long, unbroken history of Jaina plastic art.

Setting out a panoramic view of Jaina architecture, sculptural art, and socio-religious life over the ages, specially in the sacred city of Mathura, this study is based on wide-ranging authoritative sources and supplemented by a number of highly representatives illustrations.







1. Introduction to Jainism
Misconceptions about Jainism
Jainism is Not an Off-shoot of Buddhism
Points of Similarity and Difference Between Jainism and Buddhism
Points of Similarity and Difference Between Jainism and Hinduism
Relationship Between Jainism and Hinduism
Background of Jainism
Outlines of Jainism
Conception of God in Jainism
Ideals of Jainism
2. Jaina Tirthamkaras and Antiquity of Jainism
Jaina Worship
Introduction to the Tirthamkaras
Rishabha - The First Tirthamkara
Ajitanatha - The Second Tirthamkara
Sambhavanatha - The Third Tirthamkara
Abhinandananatha - The Fourth Tirthamkara
Sumatinatha - The Fifth Tirthamkara
Padmaprabhanatha - The Sixth Tirthamkara
Suparshvanatha - The Seventh Tirthamkara
Candraprabha - The Eighth Tirthamkara
Suvidhinatha - The Ninth Tirthamkara
Shitalanatha - The Tenth Tirthamkara
Shreyamshanatha - The Eleventh Tirthamkara
Vasupujya - The Twelfth Tirthamkara
Vimalanatha - The Thirteenth Tirthamkara
Anantanatha - The Fourteenth Tirthamkara
Dharmanatha - The Fifteenth Tirthamkara
Shantinatha - The Sixteenth Tirthamkara
Kunthunatha - The Seventeeth Tirthamkara
Aranatha - The Eighteenth Tirthamkara
Malli - The Nineteenth Tirthamkara
Munisuvrata - The Twentieth Tirthamkara
Naminatha - The Twenty-first Tirthamkara
Neminatha - The Twenty-second Tirthamkara
Antiquity of Jainism
3. Parshvanatha and Vardhamana Mahavira
The Historicity of Parshvanatha
Background of Parshvanatha
Life of Parshvanatha
The Teachings of Parshvanatha
The Contribution of Parshvanatha
Vardhmana Mahavira
Background of Mahavira
Life of Vardhamana Mahavira
Teachings of Vardhamana Mahavira
Contribution of Mahavira
4. Post-Mahavira Period and the Contribution of Jainism to Indian Culture
Spread of Jainism
Jainism in Bihar and Bengal
Jainism in Kalinga
Jainism in Uttar Pradesh
Jainism in Bundelkhand
Jainism in Malwa
Jainism in Rajasthan
Jainism in Gujarat
Jainism in the Deccan and South India
Jainism in Other Parts of India
Schisms in the Jaina Church
Causes of the Split in Jainism
The Shvetambaras and the Digambaras
Sub-Divisions of the Shvetambaras and Digambaras
The Yapaniyas and the Dravida Samgha
Estimate of the Split in Jainism
The Councils and the Compilation of the Jaina Canon
The Shvetambara Canon
The Digambara Canon
Background of the Jaina Councils
The Council of Pataliputra
The Mathura Council
The Valabhi Council
The Second Council of Valabhi
Review of the Jaina Canon
Contribution of Jainism
Humanitarianism and Moral Life
Monastic System
Language and Literature
Art and Architecture
Plastic Art
5. Jainism in Mathura (Second Century BC to Eleventh Century AD)
Archaeological Excavations of Kankali Tila, Mathura
Jainism in Mathura - the Early Phase
The Jaina Stupa at Kankali Tila, Mathura
The Jaina Temples and Monasteries (Viharas) at Kankali Tila
The Jaina Life at Mathura
The Split in the Jaina Church
The Jaina Life in the Kusana Period
State of Jainism in Mathura
The Jaina Community at Mathura
The Jaina Monastic Organisation at Mathura
Mathura in Jaina Literature
Jainism in Mathura - Post-Kushana Period
6. Jaina Art and Architecture at Mathura (Second Century bc to Eleventh Century AD)
Character of the Jaina Art of Mathura
Background of the Jaina Art of Mathura
Predecessors of Tirthamkara Images of Mathura
The Stupa
The Pillar
The Shila-pattas for Ayaga-pattas
Tirthamkara Images of Mathura: Pre-Kusana Period
Tirthamkara Images of Mathura: The Kusana Period
Main Characteristics of the Tirthamkara Images of Mathura: The Kushana Period
Evaluation of the Tirthamkara Images of Mathura: The Kushana Period
Other Jaina Sculptures of Mathura: The Kushana Period
Depiction of the Monks, the Nuns, etc.: The Kushana Period
Female Figures in the Jaina Art of Mathura: Pre-Kushana and Kushana Period
Jaina Art of Mathura: Miscellaneous figures of the Kushana Period
Evaluation of the Jaina Art of Mathura: Pre-Kushana and Kushana Period
The Jaina Art of Mathura: The Gupta Period
The Jina Figures of Mathura: The Gupta Period
Characteristic Features of the Jina Figures of Mathura: The Gupta Period
Evaluation of the Jina Figures of Mathura: The Gupta Period
Other Jaina Figures of Mathura: The Gupta Period
The Jaina Art of Mathura: Post-Gupta Period
Lanchanas and Attendant Yakshas and Yakshis of the Twenty-four Tirthamkaras
Suvidhinatha or Pushpadanta
Mallinatha or Malli
Neminatha or Arishtanemi
Vardhamana Mahavira
The Jaina Architecture at Mathura
Architecture of the Jaina Shrines and Monasteries at Mathura
The Jaina Stupa Architecture of Mathura
7. Jainism in Mathura (Eleventh Century AD to the Present Times)