A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia   (Set of  2 Volumes)

A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia (Set of 2 Volumes)

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Author: N Elias
E Denison Ross/
Translator(s): E Denison Ross
Publisher: Aryan
Year: 2006
Language: English
Pages: 535
ISBN/UPC (if available): 818678702X


The present work in two volumes is the English translation of Tarikh-I-Rashidi, written by Mirza Muhammad Haidar, Daughlat.

The book brings forth an absorbing and informative history of Central Asia. The Object of the Tarikh-I-Rashidi, as the author tells his readers, is to preserve the memory of Moghuls and their Khans. The Author, Mirza Haidar, has attempted a very minute and first hand account of the region which reveals in both in depth and on a personal level. The work is an earnest one, and the author, no doubt intented that it should be before everything else, a clear and complete exposition of the times he had set himself to chronicle.

The scope and character of the Tarikh-I-Rashidi may be briefly summarized in the following way. It may be regarded as the history of that branch of the Moghul Khans who separated themselves, about the year 1321, from the main system of the Chaghatai, which was then the ruling dynasty in Transoxiana; and it is the only history known to exist of this branch of the Moghuls. The original, or western line-that of Transoxiana-was at that time declining in power, and through internal dissensions and administrative decay, was rapidly approaching a final dissolution. The princes of the branch then thrown off, became masters of Moghulistan (or Jatah, as it was called at that period) and of all Eastern Turkistan, and continued as a ruling dynasty for more than two and a half centuries.

The book is divided into two parts, called Daftar, the first of which is entirely historical, while the second contains reminiscences of the author’s life and notices of Chaghatai, Uzbeg and other princes, with whom he was acquainted. The first part, or history proper, was written in Kashmir in 1544 and 1545. It contains a record of two distinct and parallel dynasties: (1) that of the Khans of Moghulistan, beginning with Tughluk Timur, who reigned from 1347 to 1362, and whose father, Isan Bugha, was the first to separate from the main Chaghatai stem; and (2) of their vassals, the Dughlat Amirs of Eastern Turkistan, one of the earliest of whom, Amir Bulaji, the author’s ancestor, had raised Tughluk Timur to the Khanship.

The second Part, which has more than twice the extent of the first, and contains Mirza Haidar’s record of his life and times, was the first in point of date. It begins with his birth and concludes with an account of his second invasion of Kashmir, when, by a battle fought on the 2nd August, 1541, he became master of the country. This Part also includes some rules of conduct for kings, drawn up at the request of the author, by his spiritual guide, Maulana Muhammad Kazi. The book is thus a work of great historical importance and would interest historians, explorers, scholars and general readers.





I. The Author and his Book
II. The Line of Chaghatai
III. The Land of the Moghuls
IV. The People-Moghul, Turk, and Uighur
V. The Eastern Khanate, or Uighuristan
VI. The Tarikh-I-Rashidi and after
Part I: The Tarikh-I-Rashidi
I. Beginning of the Tarikh-I-Rashidi
II. The Early History of Tughluk Timur
III. The Conversion of Tughluk Timur Khan to Islam
IV. Extracts from the Zafar-Nama-Expedition of Tughluk Timur Khan into the Kingdom of Mavara-un-Nahr
V. Intrigues of Timur with Amir Haji Barlas-His return from the banks of the Jihun and his meeting with the three Priuees
VI. Tughluk timur Khan’s Second Invasion of Mavara-un-Nahr
VII. The Return of Tughluk Timur Khan to his own Capital
VIII. Ilyas Khwaja Khan
IX. Return of Amir Husain and Amir Timur to Taikhan and Badakhshan, and the Treaties between them
X. Timur’s passage of the River at the Stone Bridge, and the flight of the Army of Jatah
XI. The Dream of Amir Timur, which he looks upon as a good omen, and which induces him to make War on Ilyas Khwaja Khan
XII. Battle of Amir Husain and Amir Timur with the Army of Jatah
XIII. Conference between Amir Husain and Amir Timur and the raising of Kabil Shah Oghlan to the rank of Khan
XIV. The Battle of the Mire
XV. Siege of Samarkand by the Army of Jatah
XVI. The last days of Ilyas Khwaja Khan, and events that took place after his Death-The domination of Kamar-ud-Din
XVII. History of Kamar-ud-din
XVIII. The Third Invasion of Jatah by Amir Timur
XIX. Marriage of amir Timur with the Princess Dilshad Agha
XX. Amir Timur’s Third Expedition into Khwarizm, and his return owing to the Revolt of Sar Bugha
XXI. Amir Timur’s Fourth Expedition into Jatah
XXII. The Death of Prince Jahangir
XXIII. Amir Timur sends an Army against Kamar-ud-Din
XXIV. Amir Timur’s fifth Expedition into jaiah
XXV. The Last days of Amir amar-id-Din
XXVI. The Commencement of the Reign of Khizir Khwaja Khan, son of Tughluk Timur Khan
XXVII. Muhammad Khan, son of Khizir Khwaja Khan
XXVIII. Shir Muhammad Khan, son of Muhammad Khan
XXIX. Early Life of Vais Khan
XXX. Amir Sayyd Ali and Storeis relating to him
XXXI. Epitomised account of what passed between Shir Muhammad Khan and Vais Khan
XXXII. The Khanship of vasi khan
XXXIII. Amir Khudaidad and his journey to Mekka
XXXIV. The Martyrdom of Vais Khan
XXXV. Buin of Irazan after the Death of Vais Khan
XXXVI. Reception of Yunus Khan and Irazan, in Samarkand, by Mirza Ulugh Beg
XXXVII. Khanship of Isan Bugha Khan, son of Vais khan, after the Ruin of Irazan
XXXVIII. Amir Sayyid Ali’s Expedition to and Reduction of Kashghar
XXXIX. The Quarrels of Isan Bugha Khan with his amirs
XL. The Commencement of the khanship ofYunus Khan
XLI. Detailed account of the Proceedings of Yunus Khan
XLII. Arrival of Yunus Khan in Moghulistan
XLIII. Rule of Mirza Saniz in Kashghar after the Death of his Father, Mir Sayyid Ali
XLIV. Khanship of Dust Muhammad Khan
XLV. Second Return of Yunus Khan from Sultan abu Said
XLVI. Events which followed on the Death of Dust Muhammad Khan; the Supremacy of Yunus Khan, and the Murder of Buruj Oghlan
XLVII. Shaikh Jamal-ud-Din and his capture of the Khan
XLVIII. Concerning what passed between Yunus Khan and the Kings of Mavra-un-Din and his capture of the Khan
XLIX. Rune of Muhammad Haidar Mirza in Kashghar
L. Beginning of the Reign of Aba Bakr Mirza
LI. Account of the Mirzas of khotan
LII. Capture of Khotan by Mirza Aba Bakr and the Extirpation of the Mirzas of Khotan
LIII. The Stratagem of abas Bakr, by which he caused Muhammad Haidar Mirza to expel his own Amirs
LIV. Yunus Khan goes to help Muhammad Haidar Mirza against Mirza Aba Bakr, who defeats them both
LV. Yunus Khan’s Second Expedition against Yarkand, and Defeat at the hands of Mirza aba Bakr
LVI. Early days of Sultan Mahmud Khan Son of Yunus khan
LVII. The War that arose out of a different between Yunus Khan and Muhammad Haidar Mirza in Aksu
LVIII. Muhammad Haidar Mirza attacks Mirza Abas Bakr in Kashghar, and is taken Prisoner by him
LIX. Yunus and the Moghul Ulus enter Tashkand. Peace in established between the Timuri Sultans
LX. End of Yunus Khan’s Life
LXI. War between sutan Ahmad Mirza and Sultan Mahmud Khan
LXII. Arrangement for the Marriage of my father into the Khan’s Family
LXIII. Events in Tashkand during the rule of Sultan Mahmud Khan the last years and Death of the Khan
LXIV. Sultan Ahmad Khan
LXV. Mansur Khan
LXVI. Shah Khan, son of Mansur Khan
LXVII. Sultan Said Khan, son of Sultan Ahmad Khan
LXVIII. Concerning the laudable virtues and rare attainments of Sultan Said Khan
LXIX. Abdur Rashid Khan, son of Sultan Said Khan
LXX. End of first Part of the Tarikh-I-Rashidi
Part II
I. Beginning of Part II, which contains what took place among the Moghul Ulus, the Uzbeg and the Chaghatai
II. Reign of Yunus Khan; account of his Life and list of his offspring
III. End of the Reign of Yunus Khan. List of his sons. The Reign of Sultan Mahmud Khan and the reason of his ruin
IV. Epitomised account of the Martyrdom of Sultan Mahmud Khan and his children
V. The rest of the History of Mirza Muhammad Husain Kurkan
VI. History of Shabi Beg Khan
VII. Birth and Parentage of Babar Padishah: his connection with the Moghuls; and his Early History
VIII. Beginning of the Story of Sultan Said Kha,
IX. Flight of Muhammad Husain Kurkan from before Shahi Beg Khan into Khorasan; with incidental Biographical Notices
X. Babar Padishah’s Expedition into Khorasan. Troubles and contentions in Kabul
XI. Babar Padishah’s journey into Khorasan, and his return from Khorasan to Kabul
XII. Brief account of Babar Padishah’s sojourn in Kabul, and a few Stories connected therewith
XIII. Expedition of Shahi Beg into Khwarizm
XIV. The reason why Muhammad Hassain Kurkan surrendered himself to Shahi Beg Khan
XV. Some of the Author’s own Adventures
XVI. Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Kazi
XVII. Return to the History
XVIII. Advent of Sultan Said Khan in Andijan
XIX. Mirza Khan’s Life in Badakhshan.
XX. Expedition of Shahi Beg Khan against the Kazak, and the beginning of his decline
XXI. The beginning of hostilities between shahi Beg Khan and Shah Ismail
XXII. Arrival of the news of the defeat of Shahi Beg Khan
XXIII. Brief account of the proceedings of Sayyid Muhammad Mirza
XXIV. Babar Padishah learns the success of Sayyid Muhammad Mirza, and sends Sultan Said Khan to his aid in andijan
XXV. Accession of Babar Padishah to the Throne of Mavara-un-Nahr
XXVI. The Khan’s Journey to Andijan and events that occurred there
XXVII. Short account of Mirza Aba Bakr
XXVIII. The evil deeds and wisked ways of Mirza Aba Bakr
XXIX. Ubaid Ullah Khan Marches against Bokhara. Is met by Babar Padishan
XXX. Account of my Uncle, Sayyid Muhammad Mirza
XXXI. Personal Adventures of the Author
XXXII. Account of Sultan Said Khan after his defeat by Suyunjuk Khan
XXXIII. Account of the Kazak and their Sultans; the origin of their name and their end
XXXIV. Events that followed the battle with suyunjuk Khan
XXXV. Account of the Miracles of Maulana Muhammad Kazi
XXXVI. Some further Details in the same Conenction
XXXVII. Short further Details in the same Connection
XXXVIII. Short account of Shah Ismail’s End
XXXIX. Account of the Shaibani who have reigned in succession in Mavara-un-Nahr, down to the present day
XL. Reasons for Sultan Said Khan quitting Farghana and repairing to Kashghar
XLI. Description of Kashghar
XLII. Extract from the Jahan-Kushai
XLIII. The Martyrdom of Imam Ala-ud-din Muhammad of Khotan, at the hands of Kushluk
XLIV. Return to the general narrative
XLV. Battles to Sultan Said Khan with the Army of Mirza Aba Bakr at Kashghar
XLVI. Taking of Yangi-Hisar: the key to the Conquest of the Kingdom of Kashghar
XLVII. Decline of Mirza Aba Bakr; facts connected therewith, and the End of his dominion
XLVIII. The Conquest of Kashghar
XLIX. Story of the amirs who went in pursuit of Mirza Aba Kakr
L. Conclusion of the Story of Mirza Abas Bakr’s Offspring
LI. History of the Khan after the Conquest of Kashghar
LII. Arrival of Aiman Khawaja Sultan from Turfan to wait on the Khan
LIII. The Khan craves an interview with Mansur Khan and submits to him
LIV. Transactions of Mansur Khan
LV. Birth of Iskandar
LVI. Rebuilding of Aksu and negotiations of the Ambassadors of Mansur Khan and the Khan
LVII. Death of Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Kazi
LVIII. Meeting of Mansur Khan and Sultan Said Kha, and conclusion of peace between them
LIX. The Khan’s return after the Peace-Subsequent events and visit of Babajak Sultan
LX. The Khan’s Holy War against Sarigh Uighur and the reason for his turning back
LXI. The Kirghiz Campaign and the capture of Muhammad Kirghiz
LXII. Daulat Sultan Khanim, daughter of Yunus Khan, comes from Badakhshan to Kashghar
LXIII. Celebration of the Marriages of Aiman Khwaja Sultan and Shah Muhammad Sultan
LXIV. Beginning of the quarrels between the Khan and Mirza Khan
LXV. The Khan’s second interview with Mansur Khan
LXVI. Conclusion of the affairs of Babar Padishah.
LXVII. Settlement of Moghulistan and the Kirghiz
LXVIII. Extracts from the Jahan-kushai of Ala-ud-din Muhammad Juvaini
LXIX. Return to the thread of the History
LXX. The Khan’s Repentance
LXXI. How the Khan, wishing to become a Darvish, intended to abdicate the Throne, and how he was dissuaded
LXXII. Khwaja Taj-ud-din
LXXIII. Khwaja Taj-ud-Din is allowed to return to Turfan.
LXXIV. Birth of Sultan Ibrahim, son of Sultan Said Khan
LXXV. The Khan’s second Invasion of Andijan
LXXVI. Last Visit of the Khan to Moghulistan.
LXXVII. Reasons for Baba Sultan’s Flight
LXXVIII. Shah Muhammad sultan and conclusion of his story
LXXIX. Rashid Sutan and the Author lead a Holy War into Balur
LXXX. Second Expedition of the Khan into Badakhshan, and the causes of certain contemporary events
LXXXI. Causes of the Rupture between the Khan and Aiman Khwaja Sutan
LXXXII. The Khan becomes a disciple of Khwaja Khavand Mahmud
LXXXIII. Genealogy and life of Hazrat Khwaja Khavand Mahmud Shahab-ud-din
LXXXIV. Journey of Hazrat Makhdumi into India and certain matters connected therewith
LXXXV. Mirscles of Khwaja Nura
LXXXVI. The End of Khwaja Nura’s Biography
LXXXVII. Conclusion of Babar Padishah’s History
LXXXVIII. Invasion of Tibet by the Khan
LXXXIX. Description of the position, mountains, and plains of Tibet
XC. Account of the curiosities of Tibet
XCI. Tibet and the Customs of its People
XCII. The Khan makes a Holy war on Tibet
XCIII. Arrival of the Author in Tibet and subsequent events
XCIV. Arrival of the Khan in Tibet, following the Author
XCV. The Khan’s experiences in Balti
XCVI. The Author’s arrival in Kushmir and events connected therewith
XCVII. Description of Kashmir
XCVIII. Further Wonders
XCIX. Extract from the Zafar-Nama
C. The Conversion of Kashmir to Islam, and a short account of the Musulman Sultans of Kashmir
CI. Account of the Religious Sects of Kashmir
CII. Return to the main Narrative
CIII. Retreat from Kashmir and subsequent events
CIV. Return of the Khan Karyul to his capital, Yarkand and the Author’s Mission to Ursang
CV. The Death of the Khan and an Epitome of his Life
CVI. Events in Kashghar after the Khan’s death
CVII. Account of Muhammadi Barlas who was Amir-ul-Umara to Rashid Khan
CVIII. March of the Author towards Ursang. The slaying of his brother Abdullah Mirza.
CIX. Sufferings in Tibet, and the Death of the Author’s cousin, Mahmud Mirza
CX. The author crosses from Tibet to Badakhshan
CXI. Humayun Padishah, son of Babar Padishah, and his diwonfall
CXII. The Battle of the Ganges
CXIII. Flight of the chaghatai from Hindustan to Lahur
CXIV. Origin of the Author’s Expedition to Kashmir
CXV. The Author conquers Kashmir.
CXVI. Parting of the Author from Humayun Padishah