Author: E Crawley
Publisher: Sundeep Prakashan
ISBN/UPC (if available): 8185066450
Ernest Crawley's predecessors E.B. Taylor and Sir J.G. Frazer, through their researches, had made it amply clear that the current theories of the origins of marriage were based on a superficial knowledge of the modes of primitive living and thinking, and were studied in isolation from the marriage ceremonies.
The author of the present book, having realized this mistake, analyses the entire phenomenon of marriage in the background of the inseparable relation between the individual and society. He proceeds from a general study of primitive culture to the study of marriage by probing into the custom of exchange of dress between men and women.
The theory of the origins of marriage is developed dilating upon various subjects, viz. sexual taboo, sexual relations, theory of change and exchange, marriage and its ceremonies, husband, wife and mother-in-law and parent and child, etc.
TABLE OF THE CHIEF ADDITIONS TO THE FIRST EDITION
Chapter I : INTRODUCTORY
Method of Inquiry, 1-2-Typical Problem, 2-3-Primitive Thought and Culture, 3-5-Religion in the Relation of the Sexes, Both in Ordinary Life, Marriage Ceremonial and Sexual Crises, 6-12.
THE TABOO IMPOSED, CHAPTER II-IX
Chapter - II : TABOO
Taboo, 13-Social and Sexual Taboo, 13-15-Evil Influences, 15-22-The Abnormal and the New, 22-30-The Supernatural Character of Emotions, of Pain, of Sicknessm and of Death, 30-37-Supernatural Danger in Human Relation, 37-41.
Chapter - III : SEXUAL TABOO
The Relations of Man and Woman, 42-44-Sexual Taboo, 44-52-Sexual Solidarity and Sexual Antagonism, 52-58-Sexual Taboo in Religion, 58-61-Sex and Occupations, 61-71-Sexual Taboo at Sexual Crises, 71-77-The Influence of Sexual Taboo on Language, 77-83-Preliminary Analysis of Sexual Taboo, 84-87.
Chapter IV : HUMAN RELATIONS
Evil Spirits and Material Evil Influences Not Distinguished, 88-91-Anthropomorphism, 91-93-Possesion, 93-Personification and the Memory-image, 94-95-The Real and the Ideal Not Distinguished, 95-96-Human and Spiritual Influence Not Distinguished, 96-104-In Sexual and Social Relations Human Influence Underlies Spiritual, 104-106.
Chapter V : HUMAN RELATIONS (Continued)
Contact the Test of Human Relations, Both Sexual and Social, 107-111-Substance and Accidents, iii-112-Material Transmission of States and Properties, The Basis of Sexual and Social Taboo, 112-Contagion of Various Human Qualities and States, 112-123-Contagion of Degradation, Dullness, Timidity, Stupidity, Weakness, Effeminacy, Pain, Sin and Crime, Sickness and Disease, Death, Beneficence, Love Friendship, Strength and Courage, 124-137-Contagion by Means of Parts of Properties of the Body, Clothes, Food, Various Forms of Contact, Stepping Over the Shadow, Sight or Mere Proximity, 138-152-The Intention-153-155-Oaths and Ordeals-156-157-The Method of Ngadhungi, 157-165.
Chapter - VI : HUMAN RELATIONS (Continued)
Care of Functions and Organs, 166-167-The Mutilation of Organs, 168-172-Disgust, Uncleanness and Shame in Connection with Sexual and Social Taboo, 172-174-Summary of the Conceptions which Underlie Human Relations, 174-176-Their Result in Primitive Morality and Etiquette, 176-181.
Chapter - VII : COMMENSAL RELATIONS
Contact By Means of Food, 182-183-Importance of Nutrition, 183-185-Fasting, 186-Frobidden Food, 186-187-Transmission of Properties by food, 188-Magic by Means of Food, 188-189-Eating in Solitude, 190-191-Taboos Against Eating with Others, 191-198-Taboos Against Eating with the Opposite Sex at Sexual Crises, 199-201-The Same in Ordinary Life, 202-214.
Chapter - VIII : SEXUAL RELATIONS
Contact by Sexual Intercourse, 215-Intercourse in Secret, 215-217-Obscenity, 217-Modesty, 217-218-Fear in Sexual Intercourse, 218-Magic and the Sexual Organs, 218-221-Love Charms, 221-223-Contagion of Weakness and Effeminacy, 223-226-Sexual Intercourse Regarded as Enervating and Wakening, 226-229-The Rapture of the Bymen, 229-230-Beliefs Concerning the Origin of Menstruation, 230-231-The Serpent, 231-223-Seduction by Evil Spirits in Human Form, 233-235-Sun Taboos and Their Origin, 236-239-Sexual Taboo and Purification, 239-240
Chapter - IX : SEXUAL RELATIONS (Continued)
Transmission of Male and Female Properties, 241-243-Women of Masculine Temperament in Male Clothes, 243-244-Women Regarded as Weak and Timid, 244-249-Priests Dressed in Women`s Clothes, 250-251-Transmission of Female Weakness By Contact, 251-254-Customs of Dressing Weak, Effeminate and Important Men in Women`s Clothes, 255-256-Transmission by Blood Cannot Account for all the Phenomena, 256-259-Summary of Sexual Taboo, 259-260-Its Results in Separating the Young, Both Within and Without the House, 260--269-Incest and Promiscuity, 269-270.
THE TABOO REMOVED, CHAPTERS X-XIV
Chapter X : THE BREAKING OF TABOO
The Breaking of Taboo, 271-Avoiding the Dangers of Taboo by the Use of Barriers, Veils, Dummies and Substitutes, 271-274-The Sacrifice of a part to Preserve the whole, 274-275-Fasting, 276-Purification from Taboo, 276-278-Methods of Removing Taboo, 278-280-Inoculation, 280-284
Chapter XI : THEORY OF UNION
Mutual Inoculation and Union, 285-286-The Relation of Ngia Ngiampe 287-Its Use in Love, Hospitality, Friendship, Artificial Brotherhood, the Making of Peace and in Setting Disputes, 288-296-Exchange of Wives, 296-297-Guilds, 298-Its Results in Mutual Respect and Assistance, 298-300-The Taboo Resulting from it, 300-306-Summary of the Ngia Ngiampe Relation, 306-309-The Categories of Union and Identity, 309-311-The Primitive Conception of Relationship, 311-314-Bars to Marriage, 314-316
Chapter XII : THEORY OF CHANGE AND EXCHANGE
Disguise, 317-318-Wearing the Dress of the Opposite Sex, 318-320-Change of Name and of Identity, 321-324-The Idea of New Life at Initiation. At Puberty and at Periodic Festivals, 324-329-New Food, 329-331-Representatives and Substitutes, 332-New Dress, 333-Disguise and Change Pass into Exchange, 333-Saturnalia, 333-335-Exchange of Wives, 335-337-The Nature of the Kiss, 338-343-Its History, 343-359-The Breaking of Taboo, 359-Union, 360-Duplicates and Proxies, 360-361-promiscuity, 362-363-Funeral Observances, 363-365-Scapegoats, 366-Wardances, 366-367-The Nature of the Dance, 367-372-The Principle of Make-believe in Custom, Etiquette and Punishment, 372-375.
Volume - II
Chapter - XIII : CONFIRMATION AND ENGAGEMENT
section I. Puberty and Initiation, I-2-The Dangers of Puberty, 2-4-Taboos Against the Opposite Sex, 4-6-Change of Identity, 7-9-Initiation, 9-10-The Gift of Strength, 10-11-Fdood-Taboos and Fasting, 11-13-Tutelar Deities or Guardian Spirits, 13-15-The Use of the Bullroarer, 15-17-Moral and Physical Preparation for Marriage, 17-19-Inoculation and Introduction to the Other Sex, 19-22-Sympathic Practices, 23-24-Connection of Initiation and Marriage, 24-25. Section 2. Taboos Between Betrothed Persons, 25-276-Betrothal by Proxy, 28.
Chapter XIV : MARRIAGE AND ITS CEREMONIES
The Meaning and Origin of Marriage Ceremonies, 29-32-Marriage Not a Tribal or Communistic Act But an Individualistic One, 32-33-Neutralisation of Danger, 34-38-Purification, 39-Ordeals, 40-Exposure to the Sun, 40-41-Wedding at Night, 41-Customs of Hiding and Seclusion, 41-44-The Bridal Veil, 42-45-Protecting the Head, 45-Seclusion of the ?Bride and Groom, and From Each Other, 45-48-Sympathy Between Those of the Same Sex, 48-49-Disguise and Change of Identity, 49-51 The False Bride, 51-52-Doubles, 52-Groomsmen and Bridesmaids, 53-54-Marriage by Proxy, 54-55-Marriage to Trees and the Like, 55-58-Various Forms of Abstinence, 58-61-Deferring of Consummation, 61-66-Ceremonial Defloration, 66-76-The Carrying of Bride and Bride Groom, 77-78-Sexual Antagonism, 78=80-Sexual Resistance and Complementary Violence the Basis of Connubial and Formal Capture, 80-89-The Flight and Return, 89-93-Destruction of Property, 93-95-Criticism of the Theory of Marriage by Capture, 95-100-Assimilation, 100-101-The Exchange and Inversion of Clothing, 101-117-Mutual Inoculation and Union, 117-118-Joining Hands and the Like, 118-120-Eating and Drinking Together, 121-136Bridal Gifts, 136-142-Criticism of Marriage by Purchase, 138-142.
SECONDARY TABOO, CHAPTERS XV-XVII
Chapter - XV : HUSBAND, WIFE AND MOTHER-IN-LAW
Marriage as a State of Ngia Ngiampe, 143-152-Analysis of its Duties and Their Sanction, 144-152-The Custom of Avoidance Between a Man and His Mother-in-Law, 152-159-Criticism of Theories, 159-168-Meaning and Origin of the Mother-in-Law Avoidance, 168-174.
Chapter - XVI : PARENTS AND CHILD
Sexual Taboo at Child-birth, 175-176-Saturnalia, 176-Twins, 176-The Couvade, 177-188-True and False Couvade, 177-180-Criticism of Theories, 180-182-Meaning and Origin of the Custom, 183-188-Connected Customs, 184-188-Teknonymy, 188-190-Criticism of Theories, 190-191-Meaning and Origin of the Custom, 191-193-Renewal of Marriage, 194-194-Customs Allied to Teknonymy, 194-197-The Giving of the Name, 197-198-Taboos Between Father and Mother and Child, 198-200-Godparents, 200-201-Other People`s Children, 201-202.
Chapter - XVII : THE MARRIAGE SYSTEM
The Marriage System, 203-204-Exogamy, 204-205-The Marriage of Near Kin, 205-208-Criticism of Theories, 205-208-Prohibition of Incest the Origin of Exogamy, 208-212-Historical Reconstruction of the origin of Exogamy, 212-220-Terms of Relationship, 220-221-Relationships, 221-230-The Matriarchal Theory, 230-232-Temporary Residence with the Wife`s Family, 232-239-The Bride-Price, 237-239-Classificatory Systems, 239--250-Criticism of the Theory of Group-Marriage, 250-258-Individual Marriage, 259-Summary, 259-260-Deities of Marriage, 260-261.